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Somalia Geography
Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Geographic coordinates:
10 00 N, 49 00 E
Map references:
africa
Area:
total: 637,657 sq km
water: 10,320 sq km
land: 627,337 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 2,340 km
border countries: Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,600 km, Kenya 682 km
Coastline:
3,025 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm
Climate:
principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Terrain:
mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m
Natural resources:
uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
Land use:
arable land: 1.67%
other: 98.29% (2001)
permanent crops: 0.04%
Irrigated land:
2,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
Environment - current issues:
famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
Geography - note:
strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal
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